PAPER MUST BE IN APA FORMAT Below is copied directly from the assignment page: *

PAPER MUST BE IN APA FORMAT
Below is copied directly from the assignment page:
*start of instruction
In order to better understand human evolution and behavior in the past, archaeologists and biological anthropologists often study the skeletal and cultural remains of prehistoric people. Using an anthropological perspective, students will conduct scholarly research on one of these three famous prehistoric finds: Otzi the Ice Man, Kennewick Man, Tollund Man or other “bog bodies”. After choosing which archaeological find to focus on, students will do research on the topic for their term paper.
The term paper should be 8-10 pages in length (double-spaced, 2000-2500 words) and formatted in the APA style and cite at least three scholarly and relevant books, articles or other academic sources to support their ideas and analysis.
Scholarly sources are defined as primary texts, original archaeological lab reports or peer reviewed articles from academic journals such as Evolutionary Anthropology, Journal of Human Evolution, or American Journal of Physical Anthropology. These scholarly sources can be searched for on the PCC library’s JSTOR data base or google.scholar and should be listed on a separate reference page. Use the Ath 101 Library Tutorial as a guide to researching and selecting appropriate materials.
Student should also demonstrate an ability to accurately and appropriately use scientific methods of inquiry such as the ability to formulate a hypothesis, analyze statistics, archaeological field notes and lab reports or other information gained from archaeological excavation, genetic studies or other research as part of their analysis.
Students should describe and discuss the following topics in their paper:
Define the concept of culture from an anthropological perspective.
Identify and describe the discovery, social context (human and physical environment) and history of the human remains as an individual and as a representative of their prehistoric society and stage of human evolution. (For example, how and why did people’s bodies end up in bogs in Europe? What do examinations of bog bodies reveal about prehistoric European culture?)
Identify and describe the scientific studies (focused on anthropological theories, methods, excavation techniques, genetic studies or other standard methods) that have been conducted to expand our knowledge of the find and what this research has revealed about prehistoric culture
Identify and describe the physical features of the human remains and any “grave goods” or other cultural materials found with it. What can this information tell us about prehistoric social institutions, such as politics, economics, kinship, religion or family organization?
Identify and describe any competing perspectives, theories and other factual evidence related to the skeleton’s physiology, cause of death, ethnicity, social status, subsistence patterns, tools and technology, or any other culturally relevant features and characteristics
Compare this find with other finds of the same culture and era, noting differences and similarities (eg. Tolland Man with other European Bog people, or Kennewick Man with other North American finds)
Identify and describe any legal controversies, ethical issues, or political disputes associated with this find (eg. Kennewick Man was the subject of a legal dispute between scientists and Native American tribes; Otzi was claimed by both Austria and Italy). How do these controversies relate to or reflect cultural structures and systems of power, such as racism, colonialism, or nationalism that influence how archaeological research is conducted or reported? Provide a concrete example to support your view.
Critically reflect on more ways that anthropologists might conduct their research ethically in the future. Do you think that indigenous people should always be included in the excavation and study of prehistoric human remains? Why or why not?
Personally reflect on how your own life is different or similar from prehistoric people. Why is information about human life in the past still valuable to us today? Provide a concrete example.
This paper is worth 50 points and should be submitted to this drop box by the due date. The following criteria will be used to evaluate your papers.
Scoring Criteria:
Exceptional– 5 points: defines and applies anthropological concepts, theories or methods in great detail or shows evidence of original thought; describes the social context with unusual insight or detail, uses 3 or more scholarly and relevant sources and provides 3 or more clear and concrete examples; spells, writes paragraphs and uses grammar correctly 100 percent of the time.
Good–4 points: defines and applies anthropological concepts, theories or methods covered in class; describes the social context, uses at least 2 scholarly or relevant sources and provides at least 2 clear examples; spells, writes paragraphs and uses grammar correctly 80 percent of the time.
Developing–3 points: defines anthropological concepts, theories or methods, partially describes the social context, uses 1 scholarly or relevant source and provides 1 example; spells, writes paragraphs and uses grammar correctly 60 percent of the time.
not satisfactory–1 point: defines anthropological concepts, theories or methods incorrectly, mentions social context, does not use scholarly or relevant sources or examples, spells, writes paragraphs and uses grammar correctly less than 60 percent of the time.
absent–0 points: fails to discuss information asked for in assignment prompt.
The student accurately describes the concept of culture from an anthropological perspective (5 possible points).
The student accurately describes the social context of the discovery, excavation and study of prehistoric human remains (5 possible points)
The student accurately describes different legal, political and ethical considerations related to the discovery, excavation and study of prehistoric human remains and their impact upon individuals, groups or communities. (5 possible points)
The student accurately uses and cites information from scholarly and relevant sources (5 possible points)
The student accurately applies anthropological concepts, theories and methods to describe the discovery, excavation and study of prehistoric human remains (5 possible points)
The student provides appropriate and concrete examples to support their view (5 possible points)
The student accurately conducts a comparative analysis of the cultural meaning and significance of different grave goods associated with prehistoric human remains (5 possible points)
The student accurately describes the impact of legal and political power structures or systems related to the discovery, excavation and study of prehistoric human remains (5 possible points)
The student writes in full sentences, spells accurately and uses correct grammar and formatting (5 possible points)
The student critically or personally reflects on continuing legal and ethical issues related to the discovery, excavation or study of prehistoric human remains or examines ways that indigenous cultures and scientists could work together more cooperatively in the future (5 possible points)
0-34 points: minimal paper that is not clearly written, does not define or apply the concept of culture from an anthropological perspective, is based mostly on personal opinion, inaccurate research or does not identify or describe any of the required topics about the physiological, legal, ethical or cultural issues and characteristics of a prehistoric human skeleton chosen for study, referencing less than three scholarly articles, books or other resources, and does not show any evidence of critical reflection.
35-44 points: satisfactory paper that is clearly and accurately written, defines and applies the concept of culture from an anthropological perspective, identifies and describes most of the required topics on the physiological, legal, ethical and evolutionary or cultural issues and characteristics of a prehistoric human skeleton chosen for study, referencing three to four scholarly articles, books or other resources accurately, and includes evidence of critical reflection.
45-50 points: exceptional paper that is clearly and accurately written, defines culture from an anthropological perspective, and identifies and describes all the required topics thoroughly on the physiological, legal, ethical and evolutionary or cultural issues and characteristics of a prehistoric human chosen for study in an especially thorough and engaging way, referencing more than four scholarly articles, books or other resources accurately.and including evidence of original thought and critical reflection.
Learning Outcomes:
After completing this assignment, students should be able to:
Use relevant sources of information to support their ideas and analysis of prehistoric human remains.
Describe the social context related to the discovery and study of prehistoric human remains.
Describe and reflect on competing legal perspectives, power structures, or ethical issues impacting the study of prehistoric human remains.
Apply biological anthropological concepts, theories or methods to the study of prehistoric human remains.
*end of instruction
NOW: I went ahead and gathered a few studies on the Otzi Ice Man, and if possible that should be the focus of the essay. Here are the sources!
https://www.nature.com/articles/srep18932
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-77518-9
https://www.nationalgeographic.com/history/article/tzi-the-iceman-what-we-know-30-years-after-his-discovery
https://www.nature.com/articles/471034a

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