Prompt: The Medieval Church became a political and social power in Western Europe, despite the rise of kingdoms and secular rulers. How did it do so? How did the Crusades play into the way that the Church dealt with these problems? What were some of the constant problems the Church faced from these secular rulers and how did they deal with them? How did medieval monarchs ‘fight back’? In the end, given that the Pope had extraordinary power as of 1204 (Innocent III), how did they lose that power and become vulnerable to reformers like Martin Luther?