linear project


For this assignment, collect data exhibiting a relatively linear trend, find the line of best fit, plot the data and the line, interpret the slope, and use the linear equation to make a prediction. Also, find r2 (coefficient of determination) and r (correlation coefficient). Discuss your findings. Your topic may be that is related to sports, your work, a hobby, or something you find interesting. If you choose, you may use the suggestions described below. 

Linear Model Example and Technology Tips are provided in separate documents.

Tasks for Linear Regression Model (LR)

(LR-1) Describe your topic, provide your data, and cite your source. Collect at least 8 data points. Label appropriately.  (Highly recommended: Post this information in the Linear Model Project discussion as well as in your completed project. Include a brief informative description in the title of your posting. Each student must use different data.) 
The idea with the discussion posting is two-fold: (1) To share your interesting project idea with your classmates, and (2) To give me a chance to give you a brief thumbs-up or thumbs-down about your proposed topic and data. Sometimes students get off on the wrong foot or misunderstand the intent of the project, and your posting provides an opportunity for some feedback. Remark: Students may choose similar topics, but must have different data sets. For example, several students may be interested in a particular Olympic sport, and that is fine, but they must collect different data, perhaps from different events or different gender.

(LR-2) Plot the points (x, y) to obtain a scatterplot. Use an appropriate scale on the horizontal and vertical axes and be sure to label carefully. Visually judge whether the data points exhibit a relatively linear trend. (If so, proceed. If not, try a different topic or data set.)

(LR-3) Find the line of best fit (regression line) and graph it on the scatterplot. State the equation of the line.

(LR-4) State the slope of the line of best fit. Carefully interpret the meaning of the slope in a sentence or two.

(LR-5) Find and state the value of r2, the coefficient of determination, and r, the correlation coefficient. Discuss your findings in a few sentences. Is r positive or negative? Why? Is a line a good curve to fit to this data? Why or why not? Is the linear relationship very strong, moderately strong, weak, or nonexistent?

(LR-6) Choose a value of interest and use the line of best fit to make an estimate or prediction. Show calculation work.

(LR-7) Write a brief narrative of a paragraph or two. Summarize your findings and be sure to mention any aspect of the linear model project (topic, data, scatterplot, line, r, or estimate, etc.) that you found particularly important or interesting. 

You may submit all of your project in one document or a combination of documents, which may consist of word processing documents or spreadsheets or scanned handwritten work, provided it is clearly labeled where each task can be found. Be sure to include your name. Projects are graded on the basis of completeness, correctness, ease in locating all of the checklist items, and strength of the narrative portions.

Here are some possible topics: 

  • Choose an Olympic sport — an event that interests you. Go to and collect data for winners in the event for at least 8 Olympic games (dating back to at least 1980). (Example: Winning times in Men’s 400 m dash). Make a quick plot for yourself to "eyeball" whether the data points exhibit a relatively linear trend. (If so, proceed. If not, try a different event.) After you find the line of best fit, use your line to make a prediction for the next Olympics (2014 for a winter event, 2016 for a summer event ).
  • Choose a particular type of food. (Examples: Fish sandwich at fast-food chains, cheese pizza, breakfast cereal) For at least 8 brands, look up the fat content and the associated calorie total per serving. Make a quick plot for yourself to "eyeball" whether the data exhibit a relatively linear trend. (If so, proceed. If not, try a different type of food.) After you find the line of best fit, use your line to make a prediction corresponding to a fat amount not occurring in your data set.) Alternative: Look up carbohydrate content and associated calorie total per serving.
  • Choose a sport that particularly interests you and find two variables that may exhibit a linear relationship. For instance, for each team for a particular season in baseball, find the total runs scored and the number of wins. Excellent websites:  and

Personal Growth

Synthesize the knowledge that you have obtained during this course. In what ways do you feel better equipped to select channels and formats, create messages, and communicate strategically? Rate your progress with understanding of self-awareness, cultural awareness, emotional intelligence, and self-monitoring skills. Identify areas for self-improvement.

Sources :

TED Talk Reflection

Watch a psychology-focused TED talk and write a two-page ( double-spaced) reflection paper about it. Your reflection should: 1) summarized the talk; 2) connect the talk to topics we’ve covered in class; 3) highlight something new you learned from the talk; and 4) provide several new questions you have after watching the talk. 

Take Home Exam on Emotional Psychology (I will provide the necessary readings as sources)

This exam consists of 4 essay questions, each worth 25 points.  Please answer each question. The essay questions have multiple parts, so your answer will most likely contain multiple paragraphs. But, each essay can be answered in full in 1-2 double-spaced pages or less. In other words, be thorough, but longer does not necessarily equal better. 

Make sure to also clearly reference to what you are referring. For example, do not just say As Shiota and Kalat note but instead point to the page number you are referencing. If you are referring to something that I noted in lecture but you cannot otherwise find it in your readings, make sure to note as clearly as possible what the lectures topic was and to what the slide was referring. Also, as we have discussed in every class so far, please be sure to consider and describe the societal implications of how we conceptualize emotions whenever relevant in your responses. 

Philosophy of Language

You have read: Ferdinand de Saussure (1916), excerpts; Plato’s Cratylus. Ferdinand de Saussure tries to define linguistics as a science, and in doing so, he defines linguistic signs and characterises them as being arbitrary, a claim that is under discussion in Plato’s Cratylus. 

You have read: Glymour (2015) part I, ch. 1; Moravcsik (2006), ch. 1; Fasold and Connor-Linton (2006), ch. 4. Ferdinand de Saussure claims that language is a system. With Moravcsik (2006), ch. 1 and Fasold and Connor-Linton (2006), ch. 4 (and also with your previous reading of Fasold and Connor-Linton, 2006, ch. 1, 2, 12) you get a broad overview of the sort of rules that govern signs in natural languages. You see that these rules constrain chains of sounds, chains of morphemes, chains of words, all of which is necessary to arrive at a meaningful sentence. 

You have read: Aristotle’s De interpretatione 1-9(35), Glymour (2015), part I, ch. 2; and you have had a quick overview of propositional and first-order logic (relying a.o. on Gamut, 1991, part I, ch. 2; Glymour, 2015, part I, ch. 5; Gamut, 1991, part I, ch. 3, excerpts; and Sara Uckelman’s videos from the “What is logic?” series). In Aristotle’s DI, 1-9(35), we get very explicit claims concerning linguistic signs, language and meaning, a foundational view of how declarative sentences can be categorised and grouped according to various sorts relations, most notably, (in)compatibility and deduction. There is also the stage-setting for his theory of demonstration and proof introduced in Glymour (2015), part I, ch. 2. Aristotle’s syllogistics is a term logic that studies such relations for specific sorts of sentences, very important in classification and in the construc- tion of theories: universal and particular sentences. Propositional logic (a.k.a. Boolean logic) and first-order logic (which captures Aristotle’s syllostistics and much more) are formal languages permitting the study of (in)compatibility and deduction relations in a systematic way, for atomic and compound propositions constructed obtained using a small number of logical connectives, and for quan- tified propositions, respectively. 

Below you will find study questions and prompts. Answers of max. 500 words each should be given to each question. Each answer should be given in a few (at least one, maybe not more than four) well-constructed paragraphs. Use footnotes only if strictly needed. Add bibliographic references if you add quotations of the original texts, very close paraphrases, or if you somewhere rely on an interpretation or idea found in secondary literature. The word limit per answer excludes footnotes, quotations from primary sources and bibliographic references. 

While these questions and prompts seem to concern only a few of the readings indicated above, the whole sequence of mandatory readings provides you with a conceptual scaffolding allowing you to produce sound and solid arguments. 

A word on style: each of your answers should stand as a comprehensible piece of writing. Do not assume the reader reads the question or prompt before she reads your answer. 

  1. In 383a-427d Plato argues against Hermogenes’s extreme conventionalism. In 387c5 he gives what we might call “the truth and falsity argument”.
    Socrates: Tell me this. Is there something you call speaking the truth and something you call speaking a falsehood?
    The crucial step is taken in 387c6d.
    Socrates: And if speaking or saying is a sort of action, one that is about things, isn’t using names also a sort of action? Hermogenes: Yes.
    Socrates: And didn’t we see that actions aren’t in relation to us but have a special nature of their own?
    With the tools in Glymour, part I, ch. 1, reconstruct the argument and discuss whether, in your view, it is a valid or an invalid proof. (Consider as well whether it might be an enthymeme or a fallacy.)
  2. In 434b-435d Socrates cuts extreme naturalism short, and instead rein- troduces an element of convention to how names relate to the things they designate, he recognises a role to usage and to the community. Reconstruct the argument.
    At first sight, one may think that Saussure’s position is an outright rejec- tion of the view Socrates leads us to admit. What do you think? Is it an outright rejection?
  3. In Part one, ch. 1, Saussure (1916) defines the sign, a theoretical entity which does not unite a name and a thing, a double-entity associating arbitrarily a sound-image and a concept. Reconstruct the Saussurean definition of a linguistic sign, taking into account its defining properties. Discuss how these properties coincide or differ from how Socrates in the Cratylus thought of names.
  4. Consider this claim by Aristotle:
    “Now spoken sounds are symbols of affections in the soul, and written marks symbols of spoken sounds. And just as written marks are not the same for all men, neither are spoken sounds. But what these are in the first place signs of—affections of the soul—are the same for all; and what these affections are likenesses of—actual things—are also the same.” (Aristotle, DI, 1)
    Give an argument for why, from this and other passages in DI, one can conclude that Aristotle’s idea of the linguistic sign is, in various respects, different from Saussure’s idea of the linguistic sign.
  5. Consider this claim by Aristotle:
    “A name is a spoken sound significant by convention, without time, none of whose parts is significant in separation. […]
    I say ‘by convention’ because no name is a name naturally but only when it has become a symbol.” (Aristotle, DI, 2)
    Does Aristotle agree with Saussure’s idea that linguistic signs are arbi- trary?

6. Consider this claim by Aristotle: 

“Every sentence is significant […], but not every sentence is a statement- making sentence, but only those in which there is truth or falsity.” (Aris- totle, DI, 4) 

So, among all significant sentences, only some of them might be true or false. So what’s the criterion of significance for sentences which in which there is not truth or falsity? 

Here are some notes to bear in mind: 

  • Read questions and prompts attentively. Task achievement is a must.
  • Think of each answer as an argument, think of each paragraph as dealing, one step at a time, of the claims in the argument.
    (For each paragraph, the topic sentence is the conclusion you want to arrive at; the rest of the paragraph lays down the premises and chains them up in a neat piece of reasoning.)
    Glymour (2015), part I, ch. 1, is essential as background reading for you to be able to construct paragraphs, and sets thereof, as arguments.
    Provisos and qualms should be included if they are crucial to the argument.
  • The target audience of your essay is an undergraduate student who is not taking the course. Thus you cannot assume your audience has read what you have read. Therefore, you have to reconstruct positions and claims so that a reader unfamiliar with the texts can understand your thesis, follow your argument, and be persuaded by your essay.
  • Think for yourself. Reading secondary literature is useful, but you shouldn’t appeal to it as a shortcut.
  • Add bibliographic references when you add quotations of the original texts, very close paraphrases (using “cf.”), or if you somewhere rely on an interpretation or idea found in secondary literature you may find. Failing to do so amounts to plagiarism.
  • Use footnotes if needed. Remember that the average reader skips foot- notes, so make sure you don’t put in footnotes anything required for the reader to be convinced by your argument.
  • Edit and proofread each answer.

Policy Memo

Based on their policy memo, students will prepare a 5-min presentation appropriate for a practitioner discussing their policy proposal. The presentation should serve to inform the leaders of a law enforcement agency on the pros and cons of the strategy in terms of evidence-based practice and offer recommendations for how best to implement and assess the strategy.

This is supposed to based on the memo 


This week we’re exploring causation and correlation.

  • Why is it a fallacy to confuse causation and correlation?
  • Provide an example of a statement that confuses causation with correlation.
  • conclusions and then a question to my classmates 


After completing the reading and the videos for this module, take time to develop a 8 slide PowerPoint presentation that summarizes several key ways that Christianity has influenced culture and how culture has influenced Christianity. 
The last slide (before the APA reference slide) should summarize your personal views on how Christianity and culture should interact. 

Quality of available food sources Sustainability Methods

Sustainability Methods

  • Consider how your group will be structured and organized, including how responsibilities will be divided among the group members. 
  • Research common structures and their characteristics.
  • Consider the makeup of your group.
  • Research sustainability methods for your group. How are you going to maintain the initial momentum and continuity of the group and its mission?
  • Write a 1.5- to 2-page summary of your findings. 

Ghost Singer and the American Indian relationship to the Sacred

How does Ghost Singer (Novel by Anna Lee Walters) convey American Indian relationships to the “sacred?” You should analyze the narrative and literary devices Walter’s deploys to support your claim and/or assess a character’s/characters’ development in the novel. Remember to begin your CRW with an epigraph or quote and to follow citation guidelines from MLA for formatting. 

The CRWs are opportunities for you to demonstrate your understanding, acquisition ofknowledge, or articulation of ideas and arguments about the course content. To receive fullcredit and a strong score, all CRWs should answer the prompts posted in DropBox for eachassignment or engage the material presented by the Guest Lecturer. 
1) Begin with a quote from the reading, lecture, or presentation (*make sure you properlyformat the epigraph). 
2) Provide an introduction and explanation of the quote in the first few paragraphs. Thiscan be a summary of the issues, topics, or material covered to show your understanding ofthe topic. 
3) State your main point! This can be stated as a thesis, or as a cluster of related concepts,such as a theme, or a singular perspective that you have about the material. 
4) Support your ideasshow, with textual examples or summary why you are thinking,believing, or feeling what you say are. Be sure to properly cite/quote and format yoursupport using MLA style guidelines. 
5) Develop a conclusionwhy does your focus matter? What questions remainunanswered? What would you like to learn more about? How did the topic, question, orinformation change what you know or thought you knew? 
6) Organization and Flowmake sure your paper is formatted correctly (according toMLA guidelines), it is free from punctuation and grammar errors, and that your ideas arestructured logically with transitions and topic sentences.