F​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​or the SLP 4 assignment, you will explore some aspects of

F​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​or the SLP 4 assignment, you will explore some aspects of an organization’s culture, at least as you see it. (Select an organization you have worked with, if possible.) Since the concept of organizational culture is open to many interpretations and classifications, this assessment offers a slightly different approach from your background reading on organizational culture.
Required Reading
The People Group, Based on Gallup Research: What Makes a Great Workplace? Retrieved from https://thepeoplegroup.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/04/article-gallup-research-what-makes-a-great-workplace1.pdf
McNamara, C. (2000) Organizational Culture. Adapted from the Field guide to Organizational Leadership and Supervision. Free Management Library. Retrieved from https://managementhelp.org/organizations/culture.htm
Assignment
Think about the results from the Gallup Survey for a minute, and how it compares to the Academy, Baseball Team, Fortress, and Club cultures described by McNamara in the Background reading.
Then prepare a 2- to 3-page paper addressing:
In your opinion, do the Gallup results fit your general expectations or constitute a surprise in some ways? Interpret the results of the Gallup survey in terms of your own experience, either to confirm or to question the results. Compare the Gallup results and your opinions with the McNamara categories.
The degree to which the Gallup results and the McNamara information tell you similar or dissimilar things about your organization.
Does the Gallup survey and the McNamara categories help improve your managerial understanding and/or skills? What can you infer from the results about how your organization’s culture fits or doesn’t fit with you? What (if anything) can you do to make your interaction with the culture more effective?
Provide your opinion on whether or not the above two sources in this SLP 4 help you understand the organization and how you cope with it. Do they accurately depict what is needed to analyze a company’s culture?
Organizational Culture
Have you ever observed how some organizations just seem to be shining stars in their fields, even if the product or service they produce is not that much different from their competitors? Have you noticed that it seems that they are the ones who are the most successful? Did you ever wonder why? Read the following material on organizational culture for some insights into what culture is, what it does, how it is formed, and how it is taught to newcomers in the organization. This reading is available in the Trident University Library.
Flamholtz, E. & Randle, Y. (2011). Corporate Culture: The Invisible Asset. Corporate Culture: The Ultimate Strategic Asset. (pp. 3-25), Stanford, CA: Stanford Business Books.
This material on organizational culture type may be particularly helpful as you prepare your Module 4 SLP assignment.
McNamara, C. (2000) Organizational Culture. Adapted from the Fieldguide to Organizational Leadership and Supervision. Free Management Library. https://managementhelp.org/organizations/culture.htm
Organizational Structure and Design
The way an organization is designed and structured can have significant effects on its members and its ability to execute its strategy. In this module we will try to understand those effects and analyze the behavioral implications of different organizational designs.
An organizational structure defines how job tasks are formally divided, grouped, and coordinated. According to Robbins and Judge (2014), managers need to address six key elements when they design their organization’s structure:
Work specialization – the extent to which activities are subdivided into separate jobs.
Departmentalization – the basis on which jobs will be grouped together.
Chain of command – the people who individuals and groups report to.
Span of control – the number of individuals that a manager can direct efficiently and effectively.
Centralization and de-centralization – the locus of decision-making authority.
Formalization – the extent to which there will be rules and regulations to direct employees and managers.
Robbins, S.P. & Judge, T.A. (2014). Essentials of Organizational Behavior (12th Edition). Pearson.
One way to gain insight into the complexity of organizations and how organizations are structured​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​ or designed is through metaphors. For example, using metaphors, an organization can be talked about as if it were a machine or as if it were an organism. The organization that is like a machine is characterized by extensive departmentalization, high formalization, and limited by low formalization, flat hierarchy and the use of cross-hierarchical and cross-functional teams, free flow of information, and decentralization. Each design has advantages and disadvantages. For example, organizations that are like machines are often good at keeping the costs of standardized products or services down but could inhibit innovation and creativity. Read the following article by Tohidian and Rahimian (2019) that provides insight into organizational design and how metaphors are used to understand how organizations work:
Tohidian, I., & Rahimian, H. (2019). Bringing Morgan’s metaphors in organization contexts: An essay review. Cogent Business & Management, 6(1). CC BY. Available in the Trident Online Library.
Organizational structures are also considered in how they fit or align with an organization’s strategy, mission, and objectives. Traditional structures were divisional structures, functional structures, team-based or process structures, and flexible structures. More recently, organizations have needed to take on more “open boundary” designs. Models of hollow, modular, and virtual organizations describe these “open boundary” organizations. Overall, the key learning here is that the structure selected should match the organization’s strategy – or it will be very difficult for the organization to be successful.
The following reading considers organization design in an era of newer strategic considerations such as globalization and changing market dynamics:
Narasimhan, A., Yu, H. H., & Lane, N. (2012). Organization design: Inviting the outside in. Retrieved from https://www.imd.org/research-knowledge/articles/organizational-design-inviting-the-outside-in/
Aligning culture and structure
Designing an organization’s structure involves more than just shifting boxes and lines on an organizational chart. Mootee (2012) offers several critical tests when considering the adequately designing an organization’s structure:
The Future Test: Does the design reflect the needs for how a company plans to compete in the future?
The People/Culture Test: Does the design adequately reflect the motivations, strengths, and weaknesses of employees?
The Competitive Advantage Test: Does the design allocate sufficient management emphasis to the strategic priorities?
The Power Test: Does the design provide the desired allocated power to groups/individuals that is linked to the strategic value of the unit or functions?
The Agility Test: Is the design adaptable and swift to respond to future changes? (p. 1)
Mootee, I. (2012). What is the right organizational design for your corporation? And what test to use to know if you’ve got the right one? Innovation Playground. Retrieved from https://www.futurelab.net/blog/2012/06/what-right-organization-design-your-corporation-and-what-test-use-know-if-youve-got
It makes intuitive sense that organizational culture and organizational structure should affect each other. Indeed, the way work is coordinated, the way hierarchies are designed, and the way communications are channeled should align with the norms and values of the people who work there. If they do not, there will be tension and conflict between the way people feel comfortable working and the structures that force work to be done in a different way. The following article is an excellent and compelling analysis of why management should consciously ensure that culture and structure support each other so that the organization can function as smoothly and effectively as possible.
Janicijevic, N. (2013). The mutual Impact of organizational culture and structure. Economic Annals 58(198). Retrieved from https://www.doiserbia.nb.rs/img/doi/0013-3264/2013/0013-32641398035J.pdf
Optional Sources
Organizational Culture
Denison, D., Hooijberg, R., & Lane, N. (2012). Building a high-performance Business Culture. Leading Culture Change in Global Organizations: Aligning Culture and Strategy. (pp. 1-23), Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley & Sons. Retrieved from
https://media.wiley.com/product_data​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​/excerpt/4X/04709088/047090884X-373.pdf

T​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​he format of this case differs from the previous three mo

T​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​he format of this case differs from the previous three modules and resembles more closely the format of assignments you will see in many of your courses going forward. This is not to say that you should abandon what you have learned about the analytical process of alternating between the abstract and the concrete, the reflective and the active, but this paper will not follow the format of a section on concrete experience, reflective observation, abstract conceptualization, and active experimentation. Each of these aspects of analysis should be present, but integrated into the paper as a whole, rather than broken out into distinct sections.
The topic of this case is organizational design. To complete this assignment, we will begin as before, and you should identify an organization you know very well. Then conduct your analysis by addressing the topics below. Do not line up the questions and address them one at a time as in a short-answer test, but rather integrate them into a single coherent commentary and analysis of the organization. A critical part of successful completion of this assignment is for you to demonstrate your ability to employ the concepts introduced in the background material in describing and evaluating the effectiveness of the organizational design. To do this, you will need to draw on the concepts from at least three readings/videos. This paper should be 4-6 pages long.
Case Questions:
Diagram the formal structure of your organization. Identify the various management positions or titles on the chart and indicate the positions/jobs that would report to each. Identify the various management positions or titles on the chart and indicate the positions/jobs that would report to each.
SmartDraw.com (https://cloud.smartdraw.com/) provides free examples, though others are also available via Google. PowerPoint also has templates for organizational charts you can use.
Describe how work is divided (specialization and departmentalization), coordinated (chain of command and span of control), and controlled (centralization and formalization). Is the structure more mechanistic or organic?
Describe the informal structure of the organization. How does work actually get done?
How does the organization deal with the differentiation-integration issue?
Having completed this analysis, identify three strengths and three weaknesses of the organizational design.
If you could suggest one major improvement to the organizational design, what would it be?
Organizational Culture
Have you ever observed how some organizations just seem to be shining stars in their fields, even if the product or service they produce is not that much different from their competitors? Have you noticed that it seems that they are the ones who are the most successful? Did you ever wonder why? Read the following material on organizational culture for some insights into what culture is, what it does, how it is formed, and how it is taught to newcomers in the organization. This reading is available in the Trident University Library.
Flamholtz, E. & Randle, Y. (2011). Corporate Culture: The Invisible Asset. Corporate Culture: The Ultimate Strategic Asset. (pp. 3-25), Stanford, CA: Stanford Business Books.
This material on organizational culture type may be particularly helpful as you prepare your Module 4 SLP assignment.
McNamara, C. (2000) Organizational Culture. Adapted from the Fieldguide to Organizational Leadership and Supervision. Free Management Library. https://managementhelp.org/organizations/culture.htm
Organizational Structure and Design
The way an organization is designed and structured can have significant effects on its members and its ability to execute its strategy. In this module we will try to understand those effects and analyze the behavioral implications of different organizational designs.
An organizational structure defines how job tasks are formally divided, grouped, and coordinated. According to Robbins and Judge (2014), managers need to address six key elements when they design their organization’s structure:
Work specialization – the extent to which activities are subdivided into separate jobs.
Departmentalization – the basis on which jobs will be grouped together.
Chain of command – the people who individuals and groups report to.
Span of control – the number of individuals that a manager can direct efficiently and effectively.
Centralization and de-centralization – the locus of decision-making authority.
Formalization – the extent to which there will be rules and regulat​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​ions to direct employees and managers.
Robbins, S.P. & Judge, T.A. (2014). Essentials of Organizational Behavior (12th Edition). Pearson.
One way to gain insight into the complexity of organizations and how organizations are structured or designed is through metaphors. For example, using metaphors, an organization can be talked about as if it were a machine or as if it were an organism. The organization that is like a machine is characterized by extensive departmentalization, high formalization, and limited by low formalization, flat hierarchy and the use of cross-hierarchical and cross-functional teams, free flow of information, and decentralization. Each design has advantages and disadvantages. For example, organizations that are like machines are often good at keeping the costs of standardized products or services down but could inhibit innovation and creativity. Read the following article by Tohidian and Rahimian (2019) that provides insight into organizational design and how metaphors are used to understand how organizations work:
Tohidian, I., & Rahimian, H. (2019). Bringing Morgan’s metaphors in organization contexts: An essay review. Cogent Business & Management, 6(1). CC BY. Available in the Trident Online Library.
Organizational structures are also considered in how they fit or align with an organization’s strategy, mission, and objectives. Traditional structures were divisional structures, functional structures, team-based or process structures, and flexible structures. More recently, organizations have needed to take on more “open boundary” designs. Models of hollow, modular, and virtual organizations describe these “open boundary” organizations. Overall, the key learning here is that the structure selected should match the organization’s strategy – or it will be very difficult for the organization to be successful.
The following reading considers organization design in an era of newer strategic considerations such as globalization and changing market dynamics:
Narasimhan, A., Yu, H. H., & Lane, N. (2012). Organization design: Inviting the outside in. Retrieved from https://www.imd.org/research-knowledge/articles/organizational-design-inviting-the-outside-in/
Aligning culture and structure
Designing an organization’s structure involves more than just shifting boxes and lines on an organizational chart. Mootee (2012) offers several critical tests when considering the adequately designing an organization’s structure:
The Future Test: Does the design reflect the needs for how a company plans to compete in the future?
The People/Culture Test: Does the design adequately reflect the motivations, strengths, and weaknesses of employees?
The Competitive Advantage Test: Does the design allocate sufficient management emphasis to the strategic priorities?
The Power Test: Does the design provide the desired allocated power to groups/individuals that is linked to the strategic value of the unit or functions?
The Agility Test: Is the design adaptable and swift to respond to future changes? (p. 1)
Mootee, I. (2012). What is the right organizational design for your corporation? And what test to use to know if you’ve got the right one? Innovation Playground. Retrieved from https://www.futurelab.net/blog/2012/06/what-right-organization-design-your-corporation-and-what-test-use-know-if-youve-got
It makes intuitive sense that organizational culture and organizational structure should affect each other. Indeed, the way work is coordinated, the way hierarchies are designed, and the way communications are channeled should align with the norms and values of the people who work there. If they do not, there will be tension and conflict between the way people feel comfortable working and the structures that force work to be done in a different way. The following article is an excellent and compelling analysis of why management should consciously ensure that culture and structure support each other so that the organization can function as smoothly and effectively as possible.
Janicijevic, N. (2013). The mutual Impact of organizational culture and structure. Economic Annals 58(198). Retrieved from https://www.doiserbia.nb.rs/img/doi/0013-3264/2013/0013-32641398035J.pdf
Optional Sources
Organizational Culture
Denison, D., Hooijberg, R., & Lane, N. (2012). Building a high-performance Business Culture. Leading Culture Change in Global Organizations: Aligning Culture and Strategy. (pp. 1-23), Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley & Sons. Retrieved from
https://media.wiley.com/product_data/exc​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​erpt/4X/04709088/047090884X-373.pdf

M​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​ost of what is written about leadership has been written

M​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​ost of what is written about leadership has been written by western scholars and practitioners—mostly from the United States. Thus, what we have studied in this module so far reflects western assumptions and values about how to improve leadership performance.
But leadership quality, we know, is mostly about perception. If the followers perceive that a person is a leader, that person will be treated with respect and the followers will grant him the power and authority to guide their actions. These perceptions can vary across cultures, and successful global leaders know that leadership is viewed differently in different cultures and modify their behaviors to align with culturally diverse expectations. This is what is called Cultural Intelligence.
Required Reading
The following reading discusses the importance of cultural awareness in increasing organizational effectiveness:
O’Reilly, C. (2013). Why is cultural intelligence important? Retrieved from https://www.trainingzone.co.uk/topic/soft-skills/why-cultuiral-intelligence-important/181942
Assignment
In this exercise, there are two sets of quizzes (A & B) that you will participate in.
Select either the Cross Cultural Work Scenarios or Working Globally Across Cultures quiz from https://www.commisceo-global.com/quizzes/cultural-awareness-quizzes?view=qcategory&cat_id=39
Choose any one of the country quizzes at https://www.commisceo-global.com/quizzes/cultural-awareness-quizzes?view=qcategory&cat_id=41 that looks interesting to you.
After completing the quizzes, address the following questions in a 2- to 3-page essay:
Which quizzes did you take?
Include your actual results in an Appendix at the end of your paper.
Were you surprised at your score?
What strengths do you think you have in intercultural awareness?
What weaknesses are you able to identify?
If there were gaps between your assessment results and your own thoughts about your level of cultural awareness, why do these gaps exist?
Create a plan of specific, concrete actions you can take to build on your strengths and improve areas of weakness so that you improve your cultural awareness.
Why is it important for managers to increase their levels of cultural awareness?
People have wondered about what makes a great leader since the beginning of recorded history – and undoubtedly long before. The formal study of leadership dates back to the 1950s, and is probably one of the most researched topics in Organizational Behavior. Today, after decades of study, we believe that:
Leaders are made, not born, and leadership can be taught.
Leadership occurs in all kinds of organizations and at all levels.
To be a great leader, one does not have to be charismatic.
There is no one right way to lead that will fit all situations.
In this module, we will review the major theories of leadership that persist to this day. Although some are more complex than others, each seems to have a nugget of truth and adds to our overall understanding of how leadership works and what makes great leadership. The following chart summarizes the major approaches or models that we will cover.
Leadership Model

Principles
Trait Model

Leaders have special innate qualities. Certain people are “natural leaders.”
Behavioral Models

Leaders are concerned primarily with task or relationships, though the best leaders are concerned with both.
Contingency Models

Different leader behaviors are effective for different types of followers and situations.
Influence (Power) Models

Leadership consists of influencing others.
Transformational Models

Leaders are visionaries who change organizations and people’s behavior.
Let’s begin with a PowerPoint presentation that will provide some background on these different models:
Eveland, J. D. (n.d.) Leadership. Trident University International.
The exercise of leadership, by definition, involves compelling people to do something they might not otherwise have done. The manner in which they carry out these tasks varies, however. The degree of motivation and enthusiasm with which a follower performs his or her work is related to the type of leadership that is used. Here are the most common reactions by followers:
Commitment is characterized by the internalization of a leader’s goal or request and the follower’s decision to carry it out effectively. Frequently, the follower will go beyond what the leader has asked or expects – in other words, goes the extra mile.
Compliance is an apathetic response where the follower does what the leader asks, but exerts no more than the required amount of effort.
Resistance is a reaction where the follower opposed the leader‘s direction and avoids carrying it out (passively through avoidance or aggressively through rebellion).
Let’s take a look at power, which is closely tied to leadership. Review the sources of power in the following video presentation:
Retrieved April 2017 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eSb06mh7EHA.
Now, consider reactions to leadership’s exercise of power (by type):
Type

Most Common Reaction
Reward

Compliance
Coercive

Compliance or resistance
Legitimate

Compliance
Referent

Commitment
Expert

Commitment
This chart would indicate that the most a leader can hope for if he relies on the power received from holding a position (legitimate, reward, coercive) is compliance with directives. If leaders rely too heavily on coercive power, they risk meeting resistance. If, instead, a leader needs to have the follower’s commitment (the knowledge that a follower will comply with directives regardless of whether or not the follower is being monitored or not), then the leader must rely on personal sources of power – such as referent or expert power.
While commitment is very often the most desired reaction, sometimes compliance is enough to accomplish the leader’s objectives. Resistance, however, is something all leaders should want to avoid as it could render them totally ineffective.
Contingency Models
The Eveland PowerPoint presentation also covered contingency models of leadership. Contingency models are based on the idea that the most effective leadership style is one that matches the demands of the situation. There are three basic models of contingency leadership that we will cover in this module. Eac​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​h has a slightly different prescription as to the factors that a leader needs to consider when exercising the most successful leadership style.
The Fiedler Model
The Path-Goal Model and
The Normative Decision Model
The Fiedler Model
Unlike the behavioral theorists who came before him, Fiedler did not believe that there was one best style of leadership. He agreed that individuals tend to possess either a task-oriented or relationship-oriented leadership style, but that to know the appropriate style for a given circumstance, you also needed to understand the situation:
Situational Factor

Characteristics
Leader-Member Relations

Do the followers have trust and confidence in the leader?
Task Structure

Is the task structured or unstructured?
Leader’s position power

Does the leader have the discretion to reward or punish?
Read the following article to learn how these factors combine to indicate which leadership style would be most effective given specific situational constraints, and criticisms of the model:
Fiedler’s Contingency Theory (2016). Leadership-central. Retrieved from https://www.leadership-central.com/fiedler%27s-contingency-theory.html#axzz3OemkTtoM
While Fiedler thought that different leadership styles worked better under different conditions, he did not think that people could change their preferred style. So the important task of management was to match the leader with the right style to the right situation. The next contingency theory of leadership we will examine does not hold that leadership style is static, and instead proffers the argument that leaders can change and adapt their style to fit the situation.
Path Goal Model
The path-goal model of leadership proposes four different leadership styles and considers two situational factors (the follower’s capabilities and motivation) to match the most effective leadership style with the characteristics of the situation as follows:
Appropriate Leadership Style

Situation
Directive

Employee role ambiguity is high
Employees have low abilities
Employees have external locus of control
Supportive

Tasks are boring and repetitive
Tasks are stressful
Participative

Employee abilities are high
Decisions are relevant to employees
Employees have internal locus of control
Achievement-oriented

Employees have high abilities
Employees have high achievement motivation
In other words, a leader does not use the same approach with hourly employees with limited skills the same way she would lead employees who are highly educated and highly skilled. Read more about this approach to leadership:
Martin, R. (2012) “PathGoal Theory of Leadership.” Encyclopedia of Group Processes & Intergroup Relations. Ed. John M. Levine and Michael A. Hogg. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE, 2009. 636-37. SAGE Reference Online . Web. 30 Jan. 2012. Retrieved April 2017 from https://studysites.uk.sagepub.com/northouse6e/study/materials/reference/reference7.2.pdf
Normative Decision Model: Vroom-Yetton-Jago decision tree
The last contingency model we will consider is the Normative Decision Model, so called because it gives leaders a tool to use to decide exactly which of five leadership styles is appropriate for a given circumstance to ensure that the highest quality alternative is selected and the followers have the greatest likelihood of acceptance of that alternative. By asking a series of questions and following the answers through a decision tree, the leader can select the style that is most likely to yield the response she desires. The five leadership styles are:
Decision style

Characteristics
A1: Autocratic

Leader gathers information and decides alone.
A2: Autocratic

Leader gets information from followers but decides alone.
C1: Consultative

Leader shares problem with individual followers, asks for input, but decides alone.
C2: Consultative

Leader shares problem with group of follower, asks for input, but decides alone.
G2: Group based

Leader shares problem with group, seeks consensus on solution.
Find out what the key questions are and see how the decision tree works by reading the following article. Be sure to try out the interactive tool that allows you to try out the decision tree for yourself!
Vroom-Yetton-Jago Decision-making Model of Leadership (2013). Leadership-central. Retrieved from https://www.leadership-central.com/Vroom-Yetton-Jago-decision-making-model-of-leadership.html#axzz3OjpF9lI8
Transformational leadership
Transformational leaders are people who inspire followers to exert their greatest efforts toward achieving a vision for the future of the organization. To do this, the transformational leader needs to clearly communicate his vision for the organization and this vision must be linked to strong values that followers will find motivating. The transformational leader works hard to build trust with his followers – so that his “open area” of the JoHari Window is maximized. (See Module 2 for an explanation of the JoHari Window.)
Although he does not use the term “transformational”, Leadership expert Simon Sinek is clearly describing what constitutes this type of leadership in the following TED talk:
TED (2010) Simon Sinek: How great leaders inspire action. Retrieved from https://www.ted.com/talks/simon_sinek_how_great_leaders_inspire_action
Much of what is written about transformational leadership focuses on the role of top management – particularly CEO’s – as transformational. But what about the rest of us who lead people on a daily basis, but from the middle of the organization? Does the model of transformational leadership have anything to offer individuals who are not at the top of the leadership “food chain”?
The following article does just that by making clear how managers at all levels of the organization can become more effective leaders by infusing transformational principles into the meaning of work. Drawing on the Job Characteristics Model (remember this from module 1?), the authors show how “transformational leaders promote (i.e., shape) subordinates’ perceptions of work by influencing their perceptions of key job characteristics.” (p. 354)
Dean J., Cleavengera, D. J., and Munyonb, T. P. (2013). It’s how you frame it: Transformational leadership and the meaning of work. Business Horizons 56(3), 351-3​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​60.
You can find this article in the Trident Online Library.

O​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​nce again, we will be considering an experience which has

O​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​nce again, we will be considering an experience which has personal significance for you as a means of understanding the material from this module. For this Case Assignment, think about a situation involving leadership that made a strong impression on you. Please structure your essay in the following format, using the subtopics as headings. Your paper should be 4–6 pages, plus a title page and a references page.
Introduction: Discuss the topic of the paper and how you will approach it. It is best to write this section after you have written the rest of the paper.
Concrete Experience: Objectively describe the leadership experience. It could be a situation where you were in a leadership position, or one in which you were working under someone else as leader. The situation could have been a good experience or a failure in leadership. The important consideration is that it is a situation which you would like to understand better. In this section, strive to be objective and stick to the facts—who, what, where, when, and how.
Reflective Observation: Step back and consider the situation from different points of view. How did you feel—what were your thoughts at the time? It is also critical to consider the experience of others involved. How do you think they were feeling? Did they see things the same way you did? The key to this section of your paper is to understand the experience not only from your own perspective, but also to develop the ability to be able to look at the situation through others’ eyes. Use these different perceptions to add depth and meaning to your objective description.
Abstract Conceptualization: There are many readings and other materials explaining various models of leadership in the background section of this module. Use at least three of them to help explain the behavior of the leader and the followers in this incident. How do the models of leadership and power presented in the background material help you understand your behavior as well as how others reacted (commitment, compliance, or resistance?) Use proper citations and referencing when referring to any material from the background pages or any additional outside research. (Outside research not required, but you may supplement the background material if you choose. It should not replace the background readings and videos, but acts as an additional source.)
(Remember: The abstract conceptualization section is the “heart” of your paper. Your ability to clearly and logically apply concepts of leadership to explain your own experience is essential to demonstrating critical thinking.)
Active Experimentation: What have you learned about effective leadership from this exercise? What have you learned about how the leadership style influences follower’s reactions and motivation? What actions would you take to revise or improve upon your own leadership style and practices to be more effective in the future?
Conclusion: Sum up the main points of your analysis and the key learning you are taking from it.
Reference List: List all references that you have cited in the paper using APA formatting. References include materials from the required background readings as well as any outside internet or library sources you used in researching and writing your paper. If you have APA questions, refer to the optional listings on the background page.
People have wondered about what makes a great leader since the beginning of recorded history – and undoubtedly long before. The formal study of leadership dates back to the 1950s, and is probably one of the most researched topics in Organizational Behavior. Today, after decades of study, we believe that:
Leaders are made, not born, and leadership can be taught.
Leadership occurs in all kinds of organizations and at all levels.
To be a great leader, one does not have to be charismatic.
There is no one right way to lead that will fit all situations.
In this module, we will review the major theories of leadership that persist to this day. Although some are more complex than others, each seems to have a nugget of truth and adds to our overall understanding of how leadership works and what makes great leadership. The following chart summarizes the major approaches or models that we will cover.
Leadership Model

Principles
Trait Model

Leaders have special innate qualities. Certain people are “natural leaders.”
Behavioral Models

Leaders are concerned primarily with task or relationships, though the best leaders are concerned with both.
Contingency Models

Different leader behaviors are effective for different types of followers and situations.
Influence (Power) Models

Leadership consists of influencing others.
Transformational Models

Leaders are visionaries who change organizations and people’s behavior.
Let’s begin with a PowerPoint presentation that will provide some background on these different models:
Eveland, J. D. (n.d.) Leadership. Trident University International.
The exercise of leadership, by definition, involves compelling people to do something they might not otherwise have done. The manner in which they carry out these tasks varies, however. The degree of motivation and enthusiasm with which a follower performs his or her work is related to the type of leadership that is used. Here are the most common reactions by followers:
Commitment is characterized by the internalization of a leader’s goal or request and the follower’s decision to carry it out effectively. Frequently, the follower will go beyond what the leader has asked or expects – in other words, goes the extra mile.
Compliance is an apathetic response where the follower does what the leader asks, but exerts no more than the required amount of effort.
Resistance is a reaction where the follower opposed the leader‘s direction and avoids carrying it out (passively through avoidance or aggressively through rebellion).
Let’s take a look at power, which is closely tied to leadership. Review the sources of power in the following video presentation:
Retrieved April 2017 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eSb06mh7EHA.
Now, consider reactions to leadership’s exercise of power (by type):
Type

Most Common Reaction
Reward

Compliance
Coercive

Compliance or resistance
Legitimate

Compliance
Referent

Commitment
Expert

Commitment
This chart would indicate that the most a leader can hope for if he relies on the power received from holding a position (legitimate, reward, coercive) is compliance with directives. If leaders rely too heavily on coercive power, they risk meeting resistance. If, instead, a leader needs to have the follower’s commitment (the knowledge that a follower will comply with directives regardless of whether or not the follower is being monitored or not), then the leader must rely on personal sources of power – such as referent or expert power.
While commitment​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​ is very often the most desired reaction, sometimes compliance is enough to accomplish the leader’s objectives. Resistance, however, is something all leaders should want to avoid as it could render them totally ineffective.
Contingency Models
The Eveland PowerPoint presentation also covered contingency models of leadership. Contingency models are based on the idea that the most effective leadership style is one that matches the demands of the situation. There are three basic models of contingency leadership that we will cover in this module. Each has a slightly different prescription as to the factors that a leader needs to consider when exercising the most successful leadership style.
The Fiedler Model
The Path-Goal Model and
The Normative Decision Model
The Fiedler Model
Unlike the behavioral theorists who came before him, Fiedler did not believe that there was one best style of leadership. He agreed that individuals tend to possess either a task-oriented or relationship-oriented leadership style, but that to know the appropriate style for a given circumstance, you also needed to understand the situation:
Situational Factor

Characteristics
Leader-Member Relations

Do the followers have trust and confidence in the leader?
Task Structure

Is the task structured or unstructured?
Leader’s position power

Does the leader have the discretion to reward or punish?
Read the following article to learn how these factors combine to indicate which leadership style would be most effective given specific situational constraints, and criticisms of the model:
Fiedler’s Contingency Theory (2016). Leadership-central. Retrieved from https://www.leadership-central.com/fiedler%27s-contingency-theory.html#axzz3OemkTtoM
While Fiedler thought that different leadership styles worked better under different conditions, he did not think that people could change their preferred style. So the important task of management was to match the leader with the right style to the right situation. The next contingency theory of leadership we will examine does not hold that leadership style is static, and instead proffers the argument that leaders can change and adapt their style to fit the situation.
Path Goal Model
The path-goal model of leadership proposes four different leadership styles and considers two situational factors (the follower’s capabilities and motivation) to match the most effective leadership style with the characteristics of the situation as follows:
Appropriate Leadership Style

Situation
Directive

Employee role ambiguity is high
Employees have low abilities
Employees have external locus of control
Supportive

Tasks are boring and repetitive
Tasks are stressful
Participative

Employee abilities are high
Decisions are relevant to employees
Employees have internal locus of control
Achievement-oriented

Employees have high abilities
Employees have high achievement motivation
In other words, a leader does not use the same approach with hourly employees with limited skills the same way she would lead employees who are highly educated and highly skilled. Read more about this approach to leadership:
Martin, R. (2012) “PathGoal Theory of Leadership.” Encyclopedia of Group Processes & Intergroup Relations. Ed. John M. Levine and Michael A. Hogg. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE, 2009. 636-37. SAGE Reference Online . Web. 30 Jan. 2012. Retrieved April 2017 from https://studysites.uk.sagepub.com/northouse6e/study/materials/reference/reference7.2.pdf
Normative Decision Model: Vroom-Yetton-Jago decision tree
The last contingency model we will consider is the Normative Decision Model, so called because it gives leaders a tool to use to decide exactly which of five leadership styles is appropriate for a given circumstance to ensure that the highest quality alternative is selected and the followers have the greatest likelihood of acceptance of that alternative. By asking a series of questions and following the answers through a decision tree, the leader can select the style that is most likely to yield the response she desires. The five leadership styles are:
Decision style

Characteristics
A1: Autocratic

Leader gathers information and decides alone.
A2: Autocratic

Leader gets information from followers but decides alone.
C1: Consultative

Leader shares problem with individual followers, asks for input, but decides alone.
C2: Consultative

Leader shares problem with group of follower, asks for input, but decides alone.
G2: Group based

Leader shares problem with group, seeks consensus on solution.
Find out what the key questions are and see how the decision tree works by reading the following article. Be sure to try out the interactive tool that allows you to try out the decision tree for yourself!
Vroom-Yetton-Jago Decision-making Model of Leadership (2013). Leadership-central. Retrieved from https://www.leadership-central.com/Vroom-Yetton-Jago-decision-making-model-of-leadership.html#axzz3OjpF9lI8
Transformational leadership
Transformational leaders are people who inspire followers to exert their greatest efforts toward achieving a vision for the future of the organization. To do this, the transformational leader needs to clearly communicate his vision for the organization and this vision must be linked to strong values that followers will find motivating. The transformational leader works hard to build trust with his followers – so that his “open area” of the JoHari Window is maximized. (See Module 2 for an explanation of the JoHari Window.)
Although he does not use the term “transformational”, Leadership expert Simon Sinek is clearly describing what constitutes this type of leadership in the following TED talk:
TED (2010) Simon Sinek: How great leaders inspire action. Retrieved from https://www.ted.com/talks/simon_sinek_how_great_leaders_inspire_action
Much of what is written about transformational leadership focuses on the role of top management – particularly CEO’s – as transformational. But what about the rest of us who lead people on a daily basis, but from the middle of the organization? Does the model of transformational leadership have anything to offer individuals who are not at the top of the leadership “food chain”?
The following article does just that by making clear how managers at all levels of the organization can become more effective leaders by infusing transformational principles into the meaning of work. Drawing on the Job Characteristics Model (remember this from module 1?), the authors show how “transformational leaders promote (i.e., shape) subordinates’ perceptions of work by influencing their perceptions of key job characteristics.” (p. 354)
Dean J., Cleavengera, D. J., and Munyonb, T. P. (2013). It’s how you frame it: Transformational leadership and the meaning of work. Business Horizons 56​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​(3), 351-360.
You can find this article in the Trident Online Library.

C​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​ommunication Climate Communication is the grease which ma

C​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​ommunication Climate
Communication is the grease which makes relationships in organizations run smoothly, and by extension, directly affects the effectiveness of the organization itself. Communication climate refers to the mood or tone of interpersonal communications and determines in great part how people feel about each other and how they carry out their work activities. Thus, communication climate has a great deal of influence over the organizational climate or general atmosphere of the work environment. Read the following blog about what it is like to work in a defensive climate:
Dukes, A.J. (2012). Defensive v Supportive Climates in the Workplace. Retrieved from https://scom320class.blogspot.com/2012/07/defensive-v-supportive-climates-in.html
As you can see from this blog entry, defensive climates create a situation where employees do not raise work concerns or communicate their needs. They are careful about what they say and guard their opinions. Frequently they exhibit low motivation.
Supportive climates, on the other hand, encourage employee participation and engagement, an open exchange of information, and constructive conflict. Employees who work in supportive environments often exhibit greater organizational commitment, an attitude cited as highly desirable in Module 1.
The Communication Climate Inventory was developed as a means of measuring the degree of supportiveness and defensiveness in an organization. For this SLP, take the inventory and score your organization’s communication climate using the scale below. Take the Communication Climate Inventory.
Defensive Score
Defensive Score
Supportive Score
Supportive Score
SLP Assignment
Compose a 2- to 3-page blog like the one you read for this SLP, describing the climate in your organization, department, or team. Do not use the actual name of the organization – you can make up a pseudonym. Include the following in your description:
Is the climate supportive or defensive? Does this align with the results of your Communication Climate Inventory? Attach your Inventory results as an appendix. (Note: This appendix requirement will likely increase your paper’s Turnitin similarity score; your professor is aware of this.)
How does the communication climate affect motivation and organizational/team commitment?
How could you improve the communication climate in your organization, department, or team?
What communication skills would you like to learn or improve on in order to create a supportive communication climate?
Be sure to support your analysis with concepts and principles introduced in the background readings on communication as well as conflict and teams (if appropriate). You may also incorporate outside research to supplement the background material. Cite all sources properly.
Force Field Analysis
The Force Field Analysis model is one that has been widely used to address challenges in communicating with others, leading teams and managing conflicts. Its goal is to move opposing groups or individuals toward more effective cooperation. As its name suggests, this model analyzes the factors (or forces) that influence situations in which people are having trouble working together. By increasing the driving forces for more effective communication and cooperation and weakening the restraining forces against open communications and cooperation, one can create a working situation that is more collaborative and productive.
For a brief summary of the Force Field Analysis model, see:
Tutor2u. (2016, April 22). Lewin’s force field analysis model [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X9ujAtYAfqU
Communication
We begin this module by building a foundation of knowledge about interpersonal communication. After all, communication is needed for effective group activities. In gaining this foundation, we will refer to Wikipedia for a “quick and dirty” overview of the topic. (Caution: Wikipedia is an unacceptable source for academic papers because it is a publicly edited site with information that can be incomplete, biased, or incorrect. However, to get a quick introduction to a topic, it can be a good place to start.)
Models of communication. (2016) Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Models_of_communication
Never discount the value of trust in strengthening communication and improving work relationships. One way to build trust is to maximize what we know about ourselves and wish to share with others. Conversely, we want to minimi​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​ze aspects of ourselves we are not aware of but are readily apparent to others (our “blind spots”). This is accomplished through a combination of self-disclosure and feedback.
The Johari Window is an excellent model for improving communication effectiveness and therefore trust. Created in the 1950s by two guys named Joe and Harry (no kidding!), this model is still widely used in organizations to improve communication between coworkers, bosses, subordinates, and teams. Watch the following videos:
Leader Logic. (2018, February 5). Johari Window example in 5 minutes [Video file]. Retrieved from

Leader Logic. (2018, February 8). Johari Window for project scope development [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rCw1wcSJ5V8
Then read:
Apricot Training Management Limited: Self Awareness. (2013) Understanding the Johari Window. Retrieved from https://www.selfawareness.org.uk/news/understanding-the-johari-window-model
Groups and Teams
The structure of modern organizations is continually changing and work is being done in teams more than ever. But teams are more than just a collection of individuals working on a single project. Team workers need a set of skills that exceeds those of individual workers to allow them to collaborate effectively. Often, employers do not train employees in these skills so it is a rare thing when teams live up to their potential. This is particularly true of teams in the United States, where the culture highly values individual effort and accomplishment.
In this part of the module, we will increase our ability to manage teams by learning what constitutes a team, how to handle conflict, and how to build a high-performing team. To get an overview of this topic, view this PowerPoint presentation on Group Dynamics and Conflict.
The Tuckman model of group development is one of the most widely used tools to understand the dynamics of team formation and development.
The following reading offers a concise explanation of this model and as a bonus, relates group development processes to the Johari Window (above) and the Situational Leadership model to be presented in Module 3:
Chapman, A. (2016). Bruce Tuckman’s 1965 Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing team-development model. Retrieved from https://www.businessballs.com/tuckmanformingstormingnormingperforming.htm
Most of us think about trust in teams as growing over time and with experience being with another team member. However, swift trust stems from an initial assumption of trust which is confirmed, or disconfirmed, over time. In this sense it is conditional and must be verified by the actions of team members. Read this blog about the factors that contribute to swift trust and how leaders can create it:
Swift trust—why some teams don’t storm (2011). In Management Pocketbooks. Retrieved from https://managementpocketbooks.wordpress.com/2011/04/26/swift-trustwhy-some-teams-dont-storm/
Here is an interesting example of organizational theory being used to solve practical business problems. This report is designed to help its analysts avoid group decision-making biases such as groupthink, polarization or “risky shift,” overconfidence, or composition bias. The practical application of theory demonstrated in this source may be helpful to you in preparing your case.
Mottola, G. & Utkus, S. (2009) Group decision-making: Implications for investment committees. Vanguard Investment Counseling and Research. This article can be found at https://agb.org/sites/agb.org/files/u16/Vanguard%206.pdf
Conflict Management
When working with groups, conflict is inevitable. Although conflict is often viewed as negative, this is not always true. As we learned in the earlier PowerPoint presentation, well-managed conflict can increase team performance and result in better output. One trick is to learn the differences between healthy and destructive types of conflict. Read the following for more information:
Issues Teams Face: Managing Conflict (n.d.) Retrieved from https://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/54195_Chapter_7.pdf
Now that you can recognize the difference between good and bad conflict, take a few minutes to read about some techniques that can help you manage conflict between people at work (or even at home!) and keep situations from spiraling out of control:
Help Guide (n.d.). Conflict Resolution Skills. Retrieved from https://www.helpguide.org/articles/relationships-communication/conflict-re​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​solution-skills.htm

G​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​roup Dynamics and Teams We will continue our experiential

G​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​roup Dynamics and Teams
We will continue our experiential approach to the study of Organizational Behavior by engaging in a personal applied case on the topic of group dynamics and teams. As in Module 1, use the following outline to structure your 4- to 6-page paper. You may use the subtitles as headings for your paper.
Introduction: Discuss the topic of the paper and how you will approach it. It is best to write this section after you have written the rest of the paper.
Concrete Experience: Begin with a specific situation/event. Describe an experience with a group or team that was meaningful to you. It may have been an extraordinarily good experience – or it may have been an experience that did not work out very well at all! The important point is that it should be an experience which you would like to understand better. Be objective and focus on just the facts: who, what, where, when, and how – as if you were composing a newspaper article.
Reflective Observation: Reflect upon that experience from multiple perspectives of persons involved or affected in the experience. Step back from the situation, look at the experience from your own viewpoint, and from the perspective of all other parties involved or affected. You want to look at the circumstances surrounding the experience from every relevant point of view. Why did you behave the way that you did? Why did others behave the way that they did? Did others have the same positive (or negative) experience? Explain. (Note: your discussion of theories and models from your module materials belongs in the following section.)
Abstract Conceptualization: (This Abstract Conceptualization section is the “heart” of your paper.) Use critical thinking skills to understand and interpret the experience at a deeper, more generalizable level. Interpret and understand the events you have described by drawing on the concepts, theories, and models in the background material from this module. Explain how they apply to your experience. For example, what behavior patterns can you identify in yourself and others that are similar to the ones described in the material on communication, teams, and conflict management? Does the model of Force Field Analysis (home page) help you better understand why people behaved the way they did? Be sure to apply at least three concepts, theories, and/or models and cite all references to concepts, ideas, and/or quotes that you use from any outside source.
Active Experimentation: Identify ways to respond to the next occurrence of a similar experience. What have you learned about the way groups work from this analysis? What have you learned from your mistakes? How are you going to put what you have learned to use? What actions will you take to build more effective work teams in your job?
Conclusion: Sum up the main points of your analysis and the key learning you are taking from it.
Reference List: List all references that you have cited in the paper using APA formatting. References include materials from the required background readings as well as any outside internet or library sources you used in researching and writing your paper. If you have APA questions, refer to the optional listings on the background page.
Force Field Analysis
The Force Field Analysis model is one that has been widely used to address challenges in communicating with others, leading teams and managing conflicts. Its goal is to move opposing groups or individuals toward more effective cooperation. As its name suggests, this model analyzes the factors (or forces) that influence situations in which people are having trouble working together. By increasing the driving forces for more effective communication and cooperation and weakening the restraining forces against open communications and cooperation, one can create a working situation that is more collaborative and productive.
For a brief summary of the Force Field Analysis model, see:
Tutor2u. (2016, April 22). Lewin’s force field analysis model [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X9ujAtYAfqU
Communication
We begin this module by building a foundation of knowledge about interpersonal communication. After all, communication is needed for effective group activities. In gaining this foundation, we will refer to Wikipedia for a “quick and dirty” overview of the topic. (Caution: Wikipedia is an unacceptable source for academic papers because it is a publicly edited site with information that can be incomplete, biased, or incorrect. However, to get a quick introduction to a topic, it can be a good place to start.)
Models of communication. (2016) Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Models_of_communication
Never disco​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​unt the value of trust in strengthening communication and improving work relationships. One way to build trust is to maximize what we know about ourselves and wish to share with others. Conversely, we want to minimize aspects of ourselves we are not aware of but are readily apparent to others (our “blind spots”). This is accomplished through a combination of self-disclosure and feedback.
The Johari Window is an excellent model for improving communication effectiveness and therefore trust. Created in the 1950s by two guys named Joe and Harry (no kidding!), this model is still widely used in organizations to improve communication between coworkers, bosses, subordinates, and teams. Watch the following videos:
Leader Logic. (2018, February 5). Johari Window example in 5 minutes [Video file]. Retrieved from

Leader Logic. (2018, February 8). Johari Window for project scope development [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rCw1wcSJ5V8
Then read:
Apricot Training Management Limited: Self Awareness. (2013) Understanding the Johari Window. Retrieved from https://www.selfawareness.org.uk/news/understanding-the-johari-window-model
Groups and Teams
The structure of modern organizations is continually changing and work is being done in teams more than ever. But teams are more than just a collection of individuals working on a single project. Team workers need a set of skills that exceeds those of individual workers to allow them to collaborate effectively. Often, employers do not train employees in these skills so it is a rare thing when teams live up to their potential. This is particularly true of teams in the United States, where the culture highly values individual effort and accomplishment.
In this part of the module, we will increase our ability to manage teams by learning what constitutes a team, how to handle conflict, and how to build a high-performing team. To get an overview of this topic, view this PowerPoint presentation on Group Dynamics and Conflict.
The Tuckman model of group development is one of the most widely used tools to understand the dynamics of team formation and development.
The following reading offers a concise explanation of this model and as a bonus, relates group development processes to the Johari Window (above) and the Situational Leadership model to be presented in Module 3:
Chapman, A. (2016). Bruce Tuckman’s 1965 Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing team-development model. Retrieved from https://www.businessballs.com/tuckmanformingstormingnormingperforming.htm
Most of us think about trust in teams as growing over time and with experience being with another team member. However, swift trust stems from an initial assumption of trust which is confirmed, or disconfirmed, over time. In this sense it is conditional and must be verified by the actions of team members. Read this blog about the factors that contribute to swift trust and how leaders can create it:
Swift trust—why some teams don’t storm (2011). In Management Pocketbooks. Retrieved from https://managementpocketbooks.wordpress.com/2011/04/26/swift-trustwhy-some-teams-dont-storm/
Here is an interesting example of organizational theory being used to solve practical business problems. This report is designed to help its analysts avoid group decision-making biases such as groupthink, polarization or “risky shift,” overconfidence, or composition bias. The practical application of theory demonstrated in this source may be helpful to you in preparing your case.
Mottola, G. & Utkus, S. (2009) Group decision-making: Implications for investment committees. Vanguard Investment Counseling and Research. This article can be found at https://agb.org/sites/agb.org/files/u16/Vanguard%206.pdf
Conflict Management
When working with groups, conflict is inevitable. Although conflict is often viewed as negative, this is not always true. As we learned in the earlier PowerPoint presentation, well-managed conflict can increase team performance and result in better output. One trick is to learn the differences between healthy and destructive types of conflict. Read the following for more information:
Issues Teams Face: Managing Conflict (n.d.) Retrieved from https://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/54195_Chapter_7.pdf
Now that you can recognize the difference between good and bad conflict, take a few minutes to read about some techniques that can help you manage conflict between people at work (or even at home!) and keep situations from spiraling out of control:
Help Guide (n.d.). Conflict Resolution Skills. Retrieved from https://www.helpguide.org/articles/relationships-communication/conflict-​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​resolution-skills.htm

M​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​any major countries, including the United States, recruit

M​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​any major countries, including the United States, recruit healthcare professionals from around the world to supply nurses and doctors during times of shortages. Discuss the ethics of recruiting highly qualified staff, on a permanent basis, from foreign countries. While the United States benefits greatly, how does this affect the country the individual was recruited from​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​? Ultimately, how is the world affected when professionals are recruited away from their home country? Discuss your thoughts using factual evidence and/or research to defend your position. This is a class discussion post so no title page is needed. Please read the scenario provided above and answer the questions. You can cite the Medical Law and Ethics if you need to​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​.

(‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‍‌‍‍minimum of eleven (11) pages excluding title page, abstract

(‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‍‌‍‍minimum of eleven (11) pages excluding title page, abstract, appendices, and references). Written reflections are powerful ways to analyze, enhance, and guide your service learning in health experience. An effective journal can capture the moment like a beautiful picture and can help you view your experience through different lenses. Reflections are not only descriptions of your experiences; they are also an account of what you learned from your experiences. As such, the reflective journal will be an important to‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‍‌‍‍ol to document your learning and enhance your community service experiences. This final reflection paper must have a minimum of ten references that have been published within the last five (5) years is required. All references must come from peer-reviewed journals, edited texts, or textbooks. Websites are not included in the required references. I will upload documents of what to add in my paper and my class text book to use for one of my 10 references. Paper should be written in APA STYLE 7TH EDITIO‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‍‌‍‍N

S‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‍‌‍‍elect and define a health behavior. Select and define a hea

S‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‍‌‍‍elect and define a health behavior. Select and define a health behavior (e.g. strength training, sugar consumption, vaccination, medication adherence) for a specific population (e.g. women, adults over 65 year or age, adolescents, college students, Hispanic/non-Hispanic). Provide a specific definition of the behavior; for example, HPV vaccination is defined a adolescents receiving all 3 scheduled HPV vaccinations between ages 9 and 14. When possible, use existing definitions or standards; for example, the American College of Sports Medicine defines strength training for adults is defined as engaging in at least 8-12 repetitions of 8 to 10 resistance training exercises at least twice a week. Select a Theory. Select a theory from chapters 4 – 9 that you think can provide a reasonable explanation about why people do or do not engage in the health behavior you have selected. You may have to do an initial literature search to determine which theory is a good fit for your selected behavior. Create search flow charts. Use the Texas State University search engines to locate public health research in which this behavior has been investigated using theory to identify antecedents to the behavior. Use only articles published in the past 10 years. To complete your search, use the following databases: CINAHL Complete, ERIC, Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition, MEDLINE Complete, PsycARTICES, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collect‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‍‌‍‍ion, PsycINFO, and SRORTDiscus. Create a flow chart (as show below) and present the number of articles identified, excluded, and included. Your assignment should include at least 5 flow charts. Appraise the evidence and enter relevant articles into the literature review matrix. Review the article list and discard redundant articles. Now, read the title and abstract of the articles from your search and discard any that don’t help you identify antecedents to the health behavior. Enter each relevant article into the literature review matrix, including article reference, theory/constructs used, and findings. The final literature review matrix should contain at least 10 articles. Analyze the evidence. Collectively, what do the articles you collected tell us about the relationships between the antecedents and the health behavior. Be sure to discuss the relationships between each antecedent and health behavior based on the theoretical frameworks of the theory and constructs used in the studies (Hint: refer to construct definitions). Finally, offer a synopsis of how understanding these antecedents to the behavior can help public health professionals. Use the attached template to complete the assignment. All responses should be written in complete sentences with proper grammar and spelling. Use APA citation style to indicate the source of information for all responses (. provide in text citations and references for ALL‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‍‌‍‍ an

Y​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​ou will demonstrate the knowledge and skills needed to im

Y​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​ou will demonstrate the knowledge and skills needed to improve healthcare delivery for an organization (Kaiser Permanente Fremont – Sepsis Care Program).
For this project, you will be creating a healthcare quality improvement initiative and evaluation report in which you will describe the issue at the outset, the setting, the problem to be solved, the parties affected, and the reason why the issue is important to address. You will recommend a concise implementation plan and describe in detail how you plan to evaluate if your implementation was successful.
Scenario
For the purposes of this project, imagine that you work on a team that monitors quality and risk management within Kaiser Permanente Fremont – Sepsis Care Program. Whether you are coming from a nursing lens or a healthcare administration lens, your task is to analyze the healthcare quality metrics for Kaiser Permanente Fremont. Based upon your analysis of the data, you will determine an opportunity for a healthcare improvement initiative for the organization. Then, you will provide a recommendation so that the organization can improve the quality and/or safety of its healthcare delivery. Finally, describe how you will evaluate the effectiveness of your plan.
Directions
Please note that your project requires at least five sources published within the past five years.
Your report should contain the following sections:
1. Metric analysis: Analyze the healthcare quality metrics of your chosen​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​ healthcare organization based on their public data.
A. Interpret the data and metrics related to the effectiveness of a healthcare organization.
B. Assess the validity and quality of the healthcare quality improvement data that support the need for the improvement opportunity you will include in your report.
C. Derive insights and opportunities from the data.
2. Opportunity for improvement: Determine an opportunity for a healthcare quality improvement initiative for the healthcare organization you selected.
A. Explain how the metrics drive an opportunity for improvement.
B. Determine an evidence-based quality improvement tool for addressing an improvement opportunity.
C. Apply a problem-solving framework or tool to identify what could have been done differently based on the metrics and show and/or describe your application of the tool or framework.
3. Recommendation: Provide a recommendation for the organization you selected so that the organization can improve the quality and/or safety of its healthcare delivery and determine how to evaluate if your recommendations were successful.
A. Develop a healthcare quality improvement initiative using a framework, such as plan-do-study-act (PDSA), root cause analysis (RCA), and failure mode effect analysis (FMEA).
B. Determine an evaluation method for a healthcare quality improvement initiative for 1, 3, 6, and 12 months and describe that method in detail.
C. Determine data-collection tool(s).
Please see attachm​‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‍‍‍‌‌‌‍‌‌‌‌‌‌​ents!