Discussion Question 1
Using the South University Online Library or the Internet, research elements and compounds. On the basis of your research, respond to the following:
*What are the differences between physical and chemical properties in chemistry?
*What are the differences between physical and chemical reactions in chemistry?
*What are the characteristics that make elements different from compounds? Give two examples of each that exist in the human body and explain their function.
Discussion Question 2
Using the South University Online Library or the Internet, research any one element. On the basis of your research, provide:
*What are isotopes and how are isotopes distinguished from one another?
*How can isotopes be used in medicine (be specific)?
* Describe in detail one example of how an isotope is used therapeutically, and describe another example of how an isotope is used diagnostically in medicine.
Discussion Question 1
Theories, hypotheses, and laws form the life-blood of chemistry. Using the South University Online Library or the Internet, conduct research on scientific theories, hypotheses, and laws. Based on your research, answer the following:
What do you think is the difference between a scientific theory, scientific hypothesis, and scientific law?
Is there a sequential move from one to another; amongst scientific law, theory, and a hypothesis?
Describe controlled conditions to find a scientific solution to a problem.
Discussion Question 2
Every measurement has a measurement uncertainty. Using the South University Online Library or the Internet, conduct research on measurement uncertainty. Based on your understanding, respond to the following:
How can precise and accurate measurement be achieved in spite of the inherent measurement uncertainty? (You will want to define accuracy and precision).
What are the types of measurement errors? Explain at least three such errors.
As in all assignments, cite your sources in your work and provide references for the citations in APA format.
THE INSTRUCTIONS ARE UPLOADED AS A FILE
You should watch the experimental videos :
and follow the instructions. At the end of the instruction page is the data that you should use to do the lab report.
also I will upload an example (different ) of a lab report which has been corrected, so you will have a better idea and will not commit the same errors.
Please follow the IB Chemistry IA guidelines. A draft is attached; all parts need further elaboration. The gathered information, and design need to be longer and more in-depth. Data processing especially need work, because the data does not quite follow a trend—a lot of explanation is needed to follow up a well-made graph with error bars. Conclusion and evaluation are some of the most important part, and need to be made much longer. Some notes are added in colours signify places where I am unsure of the proper chemical or structural explanation. For the evaluation table, please add 3-4 examples for both systematic and random errors, and please add another section for further research or some sort of unanswered questions. Also, please format the tables and graphs better. Please add figures and diagrams to gathered information; it should be at least a page. The variables table also needs a lot more details and explanations. Also, please add several more sources, so that there are 5-10 different sources. The IA should be 12 pages, without a title page or a bibliography.
Materials needed for this exam include a scientific calculator and a periodic table.
Scientific Calculator (https://www.desmos.com/scientific).
A Periodic Table
1. Define physical and chemical properties, provide three examples of each, discuss their reversibility, and explain the fundamental differences between them.
2. Density is a physical property of a molecule that’s measured as mass per unit volume.
(a) Given that density is usually expressed in the units of g/cm3, calculate the density of a cube of plastic that has a mass of 2.331 g and an edge length of 1.500 cm (volume of a cube is V = l3).
(b) Draw two liquids in a graduated cylinder on a separate sheet of paper. You won’t submit the drawing as part of your answer. Liquid A has a density of 1.004 g/cm3 and Liquid B has a density of 0.6223 g/cm3. Assume they don’t mix. Label which liquid is on top and which liquid is on bottom, and then draw the cube where you would expect it to be if it’s dropped into the graduated cylinder with these two liquids.
Explain the location for liquid A, liquid B, and the cube in the graduated cylinder.
3. Three quantum numbers are derived from Schrodinger’s equation that describe the probability of finding an electron around a nucleus: the principal quantum number, the angular momentum quantum number, and the magnetic quantum number. Explain each quantum number, including associated shapes, numbers, letters, and values.
4. Write the full electron configuration for phosphorus, atomic symbol P, then draw an orbital box diagram on a separate piece of paper that accounts for all of the electrons in phosphorus. You don’t need to include the orbital box diagram as part of your answer. Based on your drawing, explain why phosphorus is either paramagnetic or diamagnetic.
5. Compare and contrast the alkali metals and the alkaline earth metals. Discuss their physical and chemical properties, their magnetic properties, and their electron configurations.
6. Explain the bonding that occurs between sodium and chlorine. Specifically, what kind of bonding takes place, what’s the name of the resulting compound, and what properties would you expect this compound to have with respect to water?
7. Explain the bonding in carbon tetrachloride, CCl4—specifically, explain whether it’s covalent or ionic.
8. Explain the layout of the modern periodic table, including rows, columns, groups, and blocks. Be sure to explain what’s in each part of the periodic table.
For chemical drawings, you can use the Chemical Equation editor in the submission box for the assignment. You can also download a program called Marvin Sketch (https://chemaxon.com/products/marvin).
9. Draw the Lewis structure for sulfur tetrafluoride, SF4, and then draw the electron pair geometry. What’s the name of the molecular shape of sulfur tetrafluoride? Note: You can draw this on paper, take a picture, and paste the picture in your document.
10. Draw the structure of water. Is water considered polar or nonpolar? Why? Note: You can draw this on paper, take a picture, and paste the picture in your document.
11. When someone is injured, responding medical personnel may use either hot packs or cold packs to treat the injuries. These are examples of miniature chemical reactions. Using hot packs and cold packs as an example, explain the terms endothermic reaction and exothermic reaction.
12. Combustion reactions take place between a fuel and oxygen and produce carbon dioxide and water. Balance the following combustion reaction.
13. Aqueous lead (II) nitrate, Pb(NO3)2 undergoes a double displacement reaction with aqueous sodium chloride, NaCl, in which a precipitate forms. If the precipitate contains lead, write the balanced chemical equation for this reaction. Be sure to include the states of each of the reactants and products.
14. Explain the four basic types of chemical reactions. Be sure to include a sample equation for each type. Describe how rate relationships and activation energy are important in chemical reactions.
15. Write the equilibrium expression for the following reaction. Based upon the value of K, would you expect there to be more or less product in the equilibrium mixture? Why?