Philosophy of Language

You have read: Ferdinand de Saussure (1916), excerpts; Plato’s Cratylus. Ferdinand de Saussure tries to define linguistics as a science, and in doing so, he defines linguistic signs and characterises them as being arbitrary, a claim that is under discussion in Plato’s Cratylus. 

You have read: Glymour (2015) part I, ch. 1; Moravcsik (2006), ch. 1; Fasold and Connor-Linton (2006), ch. 4. Ferdinand de Saussure claims that language is a system. With Moravcsik (2006), ch. 1 and Fasold and Connor-Linton (2006), ch. 4 (and also with your previous reading of Fasold and Connor-Linton, 2006, ch. 1, 2, 12) you get a broad overview of the sort of rules that govern signs in natural languages. You see that these rules constrain chains of sounds, chains of morphemes, chains of words, all of which is necessary to arrive at a meaningful sentence. 

You have read: Aristotle’s De interpretatione 1-9(35), Glymour (2015), part I, ch. 2; and you have had a quick overview of propositional and first-order logic (relying a.o. on Gamut, 1991, part I, ch. 2; Glymour, 2015, part I, ch. 5; Gamut, 1991, part I, ch. 3, excerpts; and Sara Uckelman’s videos from the “What is logic?” series). In Aristotle’s DI, 1-9(35), we get very explicit claims concerning linguistic signs, language and meaning, a foundational view of how declarative sentences can be categorised and grouped according to various sorts relations, most notably, (in)compatibility and deduction. There is also the stage-setting for his theory of demonstration and proof introduced in Glymour (2015), part I, ch. 2. Aristotle’s syllogistics is a term logic that studies such relations for specific sorts of sentences, very important in classification and in the construc- tion of theories: universal and particular sentences. Propositional logic (a.k.a. Boolean logic) and first-order logic (which captures Aristotle’s syllostistics and much more) are formal languages permitting the study of (in)compatibility and deduction relations in a systematic way, for atomic and compound propositions constructed obtained using a small number of logical connectives, and for quan- tified propositions, respectively. 

Below you will find study questions and prompts. Answers of max. 500 words each should be given to each question. Each answer should be given in a few (at least one, maybe not more than four) well-constructed paragraphs. Use footnotes only if strictly needed. Add bibliographic references if you add quotations of the original texts, very close paraphrases, or if you somewhere rely on an interpretation or idea found in secondary literature. The word limit per answer excludes footnotes, quotations from primary sources and bibliographic references. 

While these questions and prompts seem to concern only a few of the readings indicated above, the whole sequence of mandatory readings provides you with a conceptual scaffolding allowing you to produce sound and solid arguments. 

A word on style: each of your answers should stand as a comprehensible piece of writing. Do not assume the reader reads the question or prompt before she reads your answer. 

  1. In 383a-427d Plato argues against Hermogenes’s extreme conventionalism. In 387c5 he gives what we might call “the truth and falsity argument”.
    Socrates: Tell me this. Is there something you call speaking the truth and something you call speaking a falsehood?
    The crucial step is taken in 387c6d.
    Socrates: And if speaking or saying is a sort of action, one that is about things, isn’t using names also a sort of action? Hermogenes: Yes.
    Socrates: And didn’t we see that actions aren’t in relation to us but have a special nature of their own?
    With the tools in Glymour, part I, ch. 1, reconstruct the argument and discuss whether, in your view, it is a valid or an invalid proof. (Consider as well whether it might be an enthymeme or a fallacy.)
  2. In 434b-435d Socrates cuts extreme naturalism short, and instead rein- troduces an element of convention to how names relate to the things they designate, he recognises a role to usage and to the community. Reconstruct the argument.
    At first sight, one may think that Saussure’s position is an outright rejec- tion of the view Socrates leads us to admit. What do you think? Is it an outright rejection?
  3. In Part one, ch. 1, Saussure (1916) defines the sign, a theoretical entity which does not unite a name and a thing, a double-entity associating arbitrarily a sound-image and a concept. Reconstruct the Saussurean definition of a linguistic sign, taking into account its defining properties. Discuss how these properties coincide or differ from how Socrates in the Cratylus thought of names.
  4. Consider this claim by Aristotle:
    “Now spoken sounds are symbols of affections in the soul, and written marks symbols of spoken sounds. And just as written marks are not the same for all men, neither are spoken sounds. But what these are in the first place signs of—affections of the soul—are the same for all; and what these affections are likenesses of—actual things—are also the same.” (Aristotle, DI, 1)
    Give an argument for why, from this and other passages in DI, one can conclude that Aristotle’s idea of the linguistic sign is, in various respects, different from Saussure’s idea of the linguistic sign.
  5. Consider this claim by Aristotle:
    “A name is a spoken sound significant by convention, without time, none of whose parts is significant in separation. […]
    I say ‘by convention’ because no name is a name naturally but only when it has become a symbol.” (Aristotle, DI, 2)
    Does Aristotle agree with Saussure’s idea that linguistic signs are arbi- trary?

6. Consider this claim by Aristotle: 

“Every sentence is significant […], but not every sentence is a statement- making sentence, but only those in which there is truth or falsity.” (Aris- totle, DI, 4) 

So, among all significant sentences, only some of them might be true or false. So what’s the criterion of significance for sentences which in which there is not truth or falsity? 

Here are some notes to bear in mind: 

  • Read questions and prompts attentively. Task achievement is a must.
  • Think of each answer as an argument, think of each paragraph as dealing, one step at a time, of the claims in the argument.
    (For each paragraph, the topic sentence is the conclusion you want to arrive at; the rest of the paragraph lays down the premises and chains them up in a neat piece of reasoning.)
    Glymour (2015), part I, ch. 1, is essential as background reading for you to be able to construct paragraphs, and sets thereof, as arguments.
    Provisos and qualms should be included if they are crucial to the argument.
  • The target audience of your essay is an undergraduate student who is not taking the course. Thus you cannot assume your audience has read what you have read. Therefore, you have to reconstruct positions and claims so that a reader unfamiliar with the texts can understand your thesis, follow your argument, and be persuaded by your essay.
  • Think for yourself. Reading secondary literature is useful, but you shouldn’t appeal to it as a shortcut.
  • Add bibliographic references when you add quotations of the original texts, very close paraphrases (using “cf.”), or if you somewhere rely on an interpretation or idea found in secondary literature you may find. Failing to do so amounts to plagiarism.
  • Use footnotes if needed. Remember that the average reader skips foot- notes, so make sure you don’t put in footnotes anything required for the reader to be convinced by your argument.
  • Edit and proofread each answer.

Policy Memo

Based on their policy memo, students will prepare a 5-min presentation appropriate for a practitioner discussing their policy proposal. The presentation should serve to inform the leaders of a law enforcement agency on the pros and cons of the strategy in terms of evidence-based practice and offer recommendations for how best to implement and assess the strategy.

This is supposed to based on the memo 

Quality of available food sources Sustainability Methods

Sustainability Methods

  • Consider how your group will be structured and organized, including how responsibilities will be divided among the group members. 
  • Research common structures and their characteristics.
  • Consider the makeup of your group.
  • Research sustainability methods for your group. How are you going to maintain the initial momentum and continuity of the group and its mission?
  • Write a 1.5- to 2-page summary of your findings. 

Crime Topic List (Choose One): Rape Murder Robbery Aggravated Assault Sex Offenses Arson

CCJ/SOC 4320 Writing Assignment
Apply 2 sociological or criminological perspectives to a crime topic from the list below.    
Examine a type of crime or crime issue (see the list below). Provided detailed background, history, and at least two different perspectives. 
Critically read and write about this crime category. Great detail should be included such as previous cases, examples, discussions, etc.  I want you to tell me ALL about the crime category you are choosing then APPLY 2 sociological/criminological theories and explain how those theories would each apply to the crime category.  
Provide a detailed overview of each criminological or sociological perspective.
Crime Topic List (Choose One): 
Aggravated Assault 
Sex Offenses
Writing Standards Proper English is required for all assignments. Correct grammar, punctuation, sentence structure, and spelling are also mandatory. Use of the APA style for this assignment is required.
Spelling, grammar, and word choice are all indicators of quality writing. Please use proper citation and attribution of source material in all written assignments. You must also give proper credit to sources used in your work. Be sure to use proper APA format for citing any source in the text of your writing and include a reference section at the end of your posting.  No charts, graphs, block quotes, or images of any kind.  This is PAPER assignment.  Writing ONLY!
Basic Requirements:
9-10 full pages of writing (10 pages maximum) (no large charts, graphs, photographs and LONG quotes) — 9 full pages of writing minimum.
Reference Page, Minimum 4 outside references  + Your textbook may be a fifth reference
12 font, time news roman or other legible font, standard margins
Double spaced (do not add extra spaces ANYWHERE in your paper to try to lengthen it)
Try to have fun with this assignment. You have PLENTY OF TIME to work on it. You may just surprise yourself with how well you do.
Did I mention a minimum of 9 full pages of writing? The cover page and reference page DO NOT COUNT TOWARD THE 9 PAGES.
Questions about this assignment are to be posted in the Course Announcement.
If I did NOT give you a specific instruction on something, then you have my permission to make decisions about your project. The rules set forth in this document are very rigid. You are much more likely to lose points from not following the rules than you are for the content of your paper.
I WILL BE VIGOROUSLY GRADING THIS ASSIGNMENT. PLEASE USE CAUTION. The rest of the HW/TESTS have been open note/open book. This is a direct reflection of your ability to put the material to work.
Assignment is worth 40 points. That is nearly 15% of your overall grade.
-10 per page that your assignment is short (9 FULL PAGES OF WRITING, PLUS 1 COVER PAGE & 1 REFERENCE PAGE) 
-4 Extra spacing, charts, graphs, widening margins or any other means of artificially lengthening your paper.
-5  for excessive spelling/grammar errors.
-3 Failure to follow other instructions listed in this document.
-3 Long quotes, block quotations, etc.
-5 Missing cover page or reference page
* I reserve the right to deduct additional points for situations that are not listed above and all above deductions should be considered as a possible deduction “up to” the number listed. 
I really enjoy reading your papers. There is very little that you can do in the content area for which I will deduct points. This will only happen if there is something completely amiss in your analysis and overall work product.
I post comments after I have finished your grade. This will be a brief notation of why points were deducted, but due to time limitations I will not fully mark up every paper. Instead, I read the paper, make notes and then deduct/add accordingly.

Scientific and Technical Communication

Discussion Board – Week 1 | Graded


Please respond to two of the following prompts.

Prompt 1

  • Explain how a course in technical communication will help you meet the demands of the work world

Prompt 2

  • Go to a website for a car manufacturer of your choice (e.g., Comment on the sites vocabulary choice, graphics, visual design, and links. Does it meet the targeted readers needs?

Prompt 3

  • First, explain the writing flaws of each of the following sentences and then revise each to be more effective.
    • There are three sites in the New York area.
    • The contractor shall accomplish the removal of visible overspray.
    • Developing a new procedure was rated as the top quality assurance objective by the division managers.
    • The building contains a special incoming materials storage area.
    • Each student must complete COM2223 before he can enroll in upper level classes. 


Initial Post 

  • Minimum 250-350 words
  • Include at least two references from the text or an outside source in your analysis



We discussed the Internet of things (IoT) which in a nutshell describes the network of
physical objectshardware/softwarethat are embedded with sensors, software, and other
technologies for the purpose of connecting and exchanging data (i.e. information) with other
devices and network systems. These devices range from ordinary household objects to
sophisticated industrial tools.
Please provide me an example of one these objects and/or industrial tools and explain how
that one item either uses either sensor technology, software or some kind of unique technology.
Please be specific and sure you tie in the following elements of IoT:

        • Senor technology does it use it and how?
        • Computing platform how do customers or and business access the platform?
        • Does it include smart technology or artificial intelligence (AI), if so, how exactly?

Please make sure that you are formatting citations within APA guidelines.  Your submission should be prepared at a minimum 3 pages Word document but not longer than 5 pages double-spaced. Times New Roman font, 12 pitch, double spaced.  Title page and the reference page are required, format your in-text citations and reference.

Research & Technical Approach


Post a summarized write up of theirResearch and Technical Approach towards their Capstone Project. Assignmentshould reflect a minimum of 200 words for each question posed.

The summary should include the following: 

  • How you intend to conduct your research? Explain
  • What you intend on researching? Be specific
  • What you envision the technical components of your capstone project proposal will consist of?

Project Proposal Attached below



How is discretion in policing different from discretion in other organizations? 

What are the four points mentioned in the text about discretionary decisions related to order maintenance made by patrol officers? 

The police continue to promote the “myth of full enforcement” for five reasons. What are those reasons? 


Assignment Prompt

One important area of police discretion involves the handling of domestic violence situations. A number of states have addressed this issue by enacting laws attempting to control police discretion. Some of these are “mandatory arrest” laws; some others are “arrest preferred” laws.

Research the law in your state. Is there a state statute related to domestic violence? Does it cover police discretion? Is it a mandatory arrest law? If not, how would you characterize it? Does the law provide guidelines for police officer handling of domestic violence? What do those guidelines say? In your opinion, do you think this law provides clear and effective guidance for police officers?

If your state does not have such a law, find one that does and study it with regard to the questions above.

State statutes can be found through some of the legal resource sites on the Web. One starting point would be the Reference Desk site ( ). Another way to find states that have domestic violence laws would be to do a Web search under the subject of domestic violence. See if any of those sites have reference material on state statutes.

Paragraph Essay

Respond to the following in a minimum of 175 words: 

What is the purpose of writing in academic form? Who is the intended audience? As a reminder, response should present fully developed ideas and reflect understanding of course concepts.
Have you used academic writing? How does the sample paper compare to past essays youve written or read? Remember to include specific details to support your comparison/contrast with respect to the sample paper and past essays youve written or read.
What are the strengths of a 5-paragraph essay? Why? What are its limitations? Why?
How does this genre compare to other forms of writing in your everyday life? What are specific points of comparison and/or specific differences?